Note: For a list of DSID ingredients and some common synonyms, click here (PDF).
DV (Daily Value)
The FDA has established four sets of Daily Values (DVs) for labeling of foods and dietary supplements: adults and children 4 years and older, children 1 through 3 years, infants 1 through 12 months, and pregnant and lactating women. In establishing these DVs, the FDA selects the highest RDA value established by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine's Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) within each of these four age and condition groups. The DV is expressed on labels as a percentage of the recommended daily amount of each dietary ingredient per serving.
DS (Dietary Supplement)
The term, dietary supplement, was defined by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) as a product (other than tobacco) that is intended to supplement the diet which bears or contains one or more of the following dietary ingredients: a) a vitamin, b) a mineral, c) an herb or other botanical, d) an amino acid, e) a dietary substance for use by man to supplement the diet by increasing the total daily intake, or f) a concentrate, metabolite, constituent, extract, or combination of any ingredient described in clause (a), (b), (c), (d), or (e).
The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA),which was signed into law on October 25, 1994, includes requirements for the definition, composition, labeling and manufacturers' claims for dietary supplement products.
The Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) is an initiative of the Nutrient Data Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, and the Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health. The DSID provides estimated levels of ingredients in dietary supplement products sold in the U.S and is intended primarily for research applications. DSID estimates are based on the chemical analysis of ingredients in representative DS products.
The Dietary Supplement Label Database is a joint project of Office of Dietary Supplements ODS and the National Library of Medicine(NLM). DSLD provides open access to full label contents of >70,000 of dietary supplements marketed in the United States.
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is responsible for protecting the public health by assuring the safety, efficacy, and security of human and veterinary drugs, tobacco, biological products, medical devices, the nation's food supply (including dietary supplements), cosmetics, and products that emit radiation.
IU (International Unit)
For some vitamins, an international unit (IU) measures vitamin activity according to biological activity and chemical content. The equivalency of one IU differs from substance to substance and is established for each substance by international agreement. See the DSID-4 Unit Conversion web page for more information.
Methods and Application of Food Composition Laboratory (MAFCL), at the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture. DSID research is conducted at MAFCL, whose mission is to identify critical food composition needs for researchers, policymakers, food producers and consumers. MAFCL develops and maintains food composition databases for foods available in the United States; conducts research on the impact of the environment, production, and preparation on food composition and intake; and develops new and improved analytical methods.
Estimated proportion of reported consumer use of a dietary supplement product or product category according to data from business reports and/or health and nutrition surveys.
Abbreviation for microgram. One microgram is equal to one millionth of a gram and one thousandth of a milligram.
Abbreviation for milligram. One milligram is equal to one thousandth of a gram.
A naturally occurring, inorganic substance with a crystalline structure. Minerals are generally classified into the following chemical classes: silicates, carbonates, sulfates, halides, oxides, sulfides, phosphates and metals.
Multivitamin/minerals (MVMs) are defined for the DSID as dietary supplements containing three or more vitamins, with or without minerals or other bioactive components.
n-3 fatty acid, omega-3 fatty acid
Polyunsaturated fatty acid with a double bond (C=C) at the third carbon atom from the methyl end of the carbon chain.
The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) assesses the health and nutritional status of adults and children in the US. NHANES is conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). NHANES collects data on the use of vitamins, minerals, herbals, and other dietary supplements from all survey participants. Information on how NHANES collects information on participants' usage of dietary supplements, is available here.
DSID-4 application tables provide linking codes to 6 cycles of NHANES DS data. These tables provide information that can facilitate the replacement of label information about DS with DSID analytical content estimates to improve the assessment of ingredient intakes from DS.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is one of the world's foremost medical research centers and the federal focal point for medical research in the United States. The NIH, comprising 27 separate Institutes and Centers, is one of eight health agencies of the Public Health Service which, in turn, is part of the US Department of Health and Human Services.
NIST SRM (National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material)
A reference material developed by NIST that is homogeneous and stable with respect to one or more specified properties, which has been established to be fit for its intended use in a measurement process. The use of NIST SRMs is an integral part of the DSID studies. SRM ingredient results are compared to NIST certified values and are used to identify acceptable laboratories for DSID studies and to monitor the quality of results during the analysis of commercial DS products.
The National Library of Medicine® (NLM) is part of the National Institutes of Health and is the world's largest medical library. The library collects materials and provides information and research services in all areas of biomedicine and health care. The web site for the Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database is hosted by the NLM.
Non-prescription prenatal MVM dietary supplement
A dietary supplement containing >3 vitamins, with or without minerals or other bioactive components, intended for prenatal use and available for purchase without a health care provider's prescription.
The Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) of the National Institutes of Health. ODS was established as a result of DSHEA to strengthen knowledge and understanding of dietary supplements by evaluating scientific information, stimulating and supporting research, disseminating research results, and educating the public to foster an enhanced quality of life and health for the U.S. population.
Omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplement
Omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements were defined for the DSID as fish oil, plant oil and fish/plant oil blends sold for the primary purpose of increasing omega-3 fatty acids intake. Most of the products analyzed had a label claim for the amount of individual (ALA, EPA, DHA) omega-3 fatty acids.
Per serving; Serving size
'Per serving' is the common term used on the Supplement Facts label to indicate the number of serving units (tablets, capsules, gel caps, teaspoons, etc) recommended for consumption per occasion. The 'serving size' is product specific, and may be one or more units. More than one recommended 'serving size' can be listed on a label, especially if two children's age groups are noted. DSID data are reported in 'per serving' amounts for MVMs and in both 'per serving' and 'per day' amounts for the omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements.
RAE (Retinol Activity Equivalent)
A unit of measure for vitamin A compounds that accounts for their differing bioavailabilities. 1 microgram RAE = 1 microgram retinol, 2 microgram supplemental beta-carotene, 12 micrograms beta-carotene, or 24 micrograms alpha-carotene, or 24 micrograms beta-cryptoxanthin. See the DSID-4 Unit Conversions page for more details.
Nutritional labeling that consists of the names and the quantities of dietary ingredients present in a dietary supplement, the "serving size" and "servings per container". However the listing is not required when the same information is noted in the net quantity of contents statement.
An organic substance essential in small amounts to sustain growth and normal function in a human body.